Furthermore, the constraints against the fermenting microorganism in MLB ethanol production can be overcome by modifying the organisms to acquire properties that can make them cope with the nature of the hydrolysates. These may be done to confer characteristics on the organism such as ethanol tolerance, tolerating high sugar concentration, ability to utilize mixed substrates effectively and ability to withstand inhibitors. These options have been extensively reviewed elsewhere [ 92 , 93 , 94 ]. The cost and efficiency of MLB processing can be improved if appropriate technologies that can cope with the varying characteristics of the feedstock mixtures are used [ 18 , 95 , 96 ].
Such technologies are already available for gasification of mixed biomass [ 31 ]. It is possible that these kinds of technologies be introduced for bioethanol production. At the moment, different pretreatment technologies are suitable for certain kinds of feedstock only [ 97 ]. It would be interesting to have such pretreatments that could produce optimal sugar yields with diverse feedstock types for subsequent fermentation. The hope and success of replacing fossils with lignocellulosic biomass for the production of ethanol is challenged by high costs of feedstock supply logistics and complexities of the conversion technologies.
The use of multiple feedstocks in the lignocellulosic biorefinery has potential for significant cost reductions and has thus gained increased attention lately. The technical feasibility of ethanol production from MLB has been demonstrated in few laboratory studies. It is possible that mixed feedstock use could generate significant cost reductions in terms of logistics but more empirical studies are required to establish this. Challenges related to processing technologies and peculiarities of MLB supply logistics could constrain the implementation of this system.
However, the adoption of strategies targeted at feedstock supply logistics such as feedstock delivery in appropriate forms and proportions, strategic siting and decentralization of the biorefinery and mixed cropping, may mitigate the anticipated limitations. Likewise, technology-related strategies could facilitate the use of MLB in ethanol production. Such strategies include specialized feedstock formulations, use of optimum mixture ratios, developing flexible technologies that can handle varying feedstock characteristics, etc. The outlook of ethanol from MLB is promising.
A rapid increase in the amount of research in this area will likely be witnessed in the coming years.
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Researchers need to seek more revolutionary measures at ensuring the sustainability of the lignocellulosic ethanol industry. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide.
Download PDF. Open Access. First Online: 17 June Introduction Problems associated with the use of fossils as sources of fuels have positioned biofuels as viable alternatives. In spite of its advantages, production of lignocellulosic ethanol at present is considered not cost-effective and has not been fully deployed on a commercial scale. The high cost of lignocellulosic ethanol production has been attributed primarily to high cost of the feedstock supply chain and technology bottlenecks in the conversion of the biomass to ethanol [ 11 , 13 ].
These problems lead to fluctuation in the supply of the feedstock to the biorefinery and also contribute in making the process more expensive. Factors hindering the full-scale production of lignocellulosic ethanol can be categorized into three groups, and they are highlighted as follows: 1. Open image in new window. The mixed biomass system generally involves the simultaneous utilization processing and conversion of two or more different biomass feedstocks in varying or equal proportions for the production of a commodity of interest rather than using a single biomass feedstock Fig.
The components may be of the same or different origin source and supply chain , they may have similar or contrasting characteristics and they may require similar or different processing techniques for their conversion. The focus of this review is on the use of mixed lignocellulosic biomass MLB for ethanol production. Diverse combinations of different types of lignocellulosic biomass have been used for the production of fermentable sugars, ethanol, and other bio-based products.
Lignocellulosic materials within the same category have been used in combination e. For biomass mixtures that fall within the same category, different parts of the same plant e. In some studies, first-generation biomass feedstock e. Although this type of combination involves first generation feedstocks, some researchers see it as a realistic way of migrating to full-scale second-generation ethanol.
An immediate halt of first-generation ethanol production is not expected in the nearest future given the higher cost and technological barriers facing lignocellulosic ethanol production [ 38 , 39 ]. Table 1 presents a summary of various feedstock combinations as derived from available literature. Table 1 Feedstock mixture combinations across various categories of biomass.
Lignocellulosic biomass from a wide variety of origins has been used in combination with other lignocellulosics or with first-generation feedstocks for ethanol production. Many of the studies have indicated that ethanol production on mixed substrates is better or comparable to what is obtainable on single lignocellulosic substrates [ 35 , 62 , 67 , 68 , 69 ].
When different biomass feedstocks are to be used in combination for ethanol production, the individual substrates may be pretreated and hydrolyzed separately or jointly. When starch-based substrates are involved, the starch hydrolysate may be diluted before use or may be used directly with the lignocellulosic hydrolysate [ 35 , 38 , 52 ]. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation SSF configurations are commonly reported for ethanol production from mixed substrates. This is understandable since first-generation feedstock have higher concentrations of readily fermentable sugars.
Table 2 is a summary of available literature concerning the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic mixtures. Table 2 Studies utilizing MLB for ethanol production. Improved Logistics and Associated Cost Reductions When multiple feedstocks are incorporated into existing single feedstock-based biorefineries, there would be increased throughput as a result of the additional feedstock processing.
Cost reductions related to feedstock transportation can also be achieved when mixed feedstocks are used in a biorefinery. It was shown that delivery cost for mixtures of woody and agricultural biomass was lower than the delivery cost of single biomass types [ 71 ].
Such lower delivery costs can be achieved if appropriate forms loose biomass, bales, chips, pellets of each biomass type at certain mixture proportions are used. Table 3 Logistic benefits and cost reductions associated with mixed biomass utilization. The prospect of ethanol production from mixed biomass has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale Table 4.
Studies have shown that in most cases, when single substrates are combined, ethanol yields from the mixtures are usually higher, or at worst, of intermediary yields compared to the single substrates [ 35 , 38 , 62 , 67 , 68 , 69 ]. This may generally be attributed to the complementary or synergistic effects of the single substrates after they are combined. The desirable characteristics of different feedstocks may be combined or the beneficial characteristics of one feedstock could compensate for another with less desirable features.
Furthermore, materials with similar characteristics can be processed easily using the same equipment e. Table 4 Technological benefits and improvements associated with mixed biomass utilization. Feedstock Supply and Logistics-Related Strategies Delivery of Mixed Feedstocks in Appropriate Forms and Optimal Proportions Delivery costs can be lowered significantly if feedstocks are combined in certain forms and at appropriate proportions.
Strategic Siting of Biorefineries Future biorefineries that will be based on MLB could be constructed at a location which is equidistant from the sources of all the feedstocks to be co-processed. Mixed Cropping Mixed cropping also known as intercropping involves the growing of two or more species of plants simultaneously on the same piece of land [ 37 ]. Decentralized Biorefinery The centralized nature of lignocellulosic biorefineries handling and processing large amounts of biomass in a single location is a major challenge to bioethanol production. Technology-Related Strategies Use of Optimum Mixture Ratios Optimal yields of ethanol can be obtained during the fermentation of MLB if appropriate ratios of the feedstock components are used.
Use of Specially-Tailored Enzyme Cocktails Given the diverse and heterogeneous structural composition of MLB, the conventional one-enzyme-at-a-time approach would not be suitable for most types of combinations. Use of Specialized Feedstock Formulation and Processing Technologies Technical challenges arising from the combination of multiple feedstocks for bioethanol production can be overcome or reduced significantly if biomass forms with similar or different properties are combined using special feedstock formulation strategies.
Development and Use of Efficient Biocatalysts To overcome the challenge of catabolite repression or sequential sugar utilization arising from the presence of sugar mixtures in the hydrolysate of the MLB, microbial strains that do not exhibit diauxic growth or catabolite repression in the presence of pentose C5 and hexose C6 sugar mixtures should be used during fermentation [ 91 ]. Developing Processing Technologies that can Efficiently Handle Feedstocks with Varying Characteristics The cost and efficiency of MLB processing can be improved if appropriate technologies that can cope with the varying characteristics of the feedstock mixtures are used [ 18 , 95 , 96 ].
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Knothe Biotechnological methods to produce biodiesel D. Guimaraes Freire, J. Production of biodiesel from algal biomass: current perspectives and future Yi-Feng Chen and Qingyu Wu Overview and assessment of algal biofuels production technologies G. Murthy Cultivation of algae in photobioreactors for biodiesel production J. Pruvost Section IV: Production of biohydrogen Biohydrogen production from bio-oil A. Kumar and S. Sarkar Biohydrogen production from industrial effluents S.
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Venkata Mohan, G. Mohanakrishna and S. Srikanth Thermophilic biohydrogen production D. Karakashev and I. Angelidaki Sukumaran, L. Gottumukkala, K. Rajasree, D. Alex and A. Production of green liquid hydrocarbon fuels A. Ray and A.
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Beyond the Carbon Economy. Energy in Nature and Society. Oleaagenic microbes for the production of biodiesel Utilization of glycerol produced during biodiesel manufacture Section-VI: Biohydrogen Biohydrogen production: Status and perspectives Biohydrogen production from bio-oil Biohydrogen production from industrial effluents Thermophilic biohydrogen production Biogas production: Status and perspectives Biogas production from solid wastes Biogas production from industrial effluents. Du kanske gillar. Biofuels Inbunden. Biodiesel Production Kurt Marcel Inbunden. Spara som favorit.
Skickas inom vardagar. Laddas ned direkt. Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals: Biofuels: Alternative Feedstocks and Conversion Processes for the Production of Liquid and Gaseous Biofuels, Second Edition, provides general information, basic data and knowledge on one of the most promising renewable energy sources-liquid and gaseous biofuels-and their production and application. The book delineates green technologies for abating environmental crisis and enabling the transformation into a sustainable future. It provides date-based scientific information on the most advanced and innovative technology on biofuels, as well as the process scale-up and commercialization of various liquid and gaseous biofuels, detailing the functional mechanisms involved, various operational configurations, influencing factors and integration strategies.
All chapters have been updated, with new chapters covering topics of current interest, including sustainability and biohydrogen. Presents a holistic view of biofuels in research, operation, scale-up and application Widens the scope of the existing technologies, providing state-of-the-art information and knowledge Provides strategic integrations of various bioprocesses that are essential in establishing a circular biorefinery Contains interdisciplinary knowledge on the environment, molecular biology, engineering, biotechnology, microbiology and economic aspects Integrates various subjects, including biotechnology, bioengineering, molecular biology, environmental science, sustainability science and chemical engineering.